IPv6
IPv6
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IP Based Technologies
by Kaushik Das

Introduction


By its very definition, the Internet is a publicly available worldwide system of interconnected computers that transmit data by packet switching over the Internet Protocol (IP). The Internet consists of thousands of other, smaller networks run by businesses, academia, and government networks that provide various information and services, like e-mail, online support, instant messaging, all of which are interlinked via the World Wide Web.

  IPv6

Thanks to the Internet's capabilities as we experience it today, it also provides for the interlinking of a vast variety of different mediums with rapidly changing technologies - all focused toward a common meeting ground, which is now being referred to as convergence.

The predominantly used IP based technologies are Voice over IP (VoIP), Internet Broadcasting, and Wireless Mobile Technology. Devices that allow the use of these technologies are flooding the markets, and are getting quickly replaced with latest models and versions with advanced features, rendering their earlier versions obsolete with amazing rapidity.

VoIP

Commonly referred to as Internet Telephony, Voice over IP comprises a system designed for the delivery of voice information over the Internet. Voice information is transmitted over the Internet in digital form in discrete packets instead of using the traditional circuit-based protocols of the public switched telephone network (PSTN). VoIP is thus a highly cost-effective option that users can exploit, considering the relatively higher tariff charged by ordinary telephone service.
 
IPv6

VoIP allows a smooth interface between voice and data applications and combine IM, presence, Web, and videoconferencing. It's possible to integrate your VoIP phones with other services available over the Internet, including video conversation, and to also exchange message or data files alongside the conversation. Other features include audio conferencing, address book management and message forwarding.

Internet Broadcasting

Internet broadcasting has revolutionized the way in which information is relayed across the World Wide Web. Networked television station web sites are just one aspect of Internet broadcasting. Thanks to the flexible nature of the Internet, it is now possible to incorporate media such as radio and TV with the Internet. Internet Broadcasting serves as an effective alternative to commercial radio and television. Downloadable podcasts, web casts and live video streaming capabilities such as the ones seen in the now famous YouTube are highly popular today, and there are plenty of broadcasts that cater to niche markets, which provide information live as well as recorded.

Wireless Mobile Technology

Mobile handsets today come with GPRS technology, allowing users to gain Internet access directly via their cellular phones. Whether it's wireless gaming, audio and video capability or access to information and email, it can all be done with instant connectivity. The use of Wi-Fi technology is gathering speed, so users located within range of a Wi-Fi network or hotspot, can benefit from the higher data transmission speeds that are possible with Wi-Fi.

The convergence process is accelerating at an astonishing speed, thanks to the adaptability of the Internet protocol suite as a shared standard that lends itself with almost any service.

Internet Broadcasting

Internet broadcasting has revolutionized the way in which information is relayed across the World Wide Web. Networked television station web sites are just one aspect of Internet broadcasting. Thanks to the flexible nature of the Internet, it is now possible to incorporate media such as radio and TV with the Internet. Internet Broadcasting serves as an effective alternative to commercial radio and television. Downloadable podcasts, web casts and live video streaming capabilities such as the ones seen in the now famous YouTube are highly popular today, and there are plenty of broadcasts that cater to niche markets, which provide information live as well as recorded.

Networks

The Internet protocol suite consists of the Internet Protocol (IP) and the Transport Control Protocol (TCP); so the entire protocol goes by the TCP/IP notation. In general, IP-based networks are made up of two basic parts: the nodes and the links. A node can be a computer or other network device, and nodes communicate with one another through links. The techniques used to establish communication between nodes on a network can be of the circuit-switched network (traditional telephone system) or the packet-switched network types. The latter is the one used in IP-based networks, as it uses available capacity most effectively with a minimum of wastage or disconnection problems.

Information is broken down to packets containing the destination address and then relayed over the packet-switched network. Every intermediate node and router in the network determines the next destination point for the packet. If there is a node malfunction, the packets sent between two network devices can be transmitted over different routes.

Services

There exist a number of network services that provide essential web based services:

  The Network File System (NFS)

  The Line Printer Daemon (LPD) and the Line Printer (LP) service

  Windows file and print services (Samba)

  The Network Information Service (NIS)

  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

  The Post Office Protocol (POP)

  Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)



Network File System (NFS) is the principal TCP/IP file-sharing protocol for Unix systems. It enables the sharing of directories between server systems and clients, and uses trusted hosts and Unix UIDs and GIDs for authentication and authorization.

NetBIOS and Server Message Block (SMB) protocol are used in Windows PCs for file and printer sharing.

Network Information Service or NIS is the Sun Microsystems client-server directory service protocol used for distributing system configuration data between computers on a network.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol that allows network administrators to automate the process of assigning Internet Protocol (IP) addresses within a network. With DHCP, a network administrator can supervise and distribute IP addresses from a central point and a new IP address gets auto-generated every time a computer is plugged in to the network, from a new location.

Post Office Protocol (POP) and Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) servers allow email to be stored on the mail server until the user is ready to read it.

Though the emergence of new technologies, a range of customer needs for high quality real time communication is being easily met as never before in video over IP and other convergence network technologies. Digital Video Transport System (DVTS) is one such. It is a simple and inexpensive method of transmitting high-quality video and audio over the Internet and DVTS brings Internet video production within easy reach of organizations. It is set to revolutionise the way business is done, apart from a host of other applications.

For instance, it will be possible to tune your computer into a number of different educational channels just as you tune your television to satellite channels and be able to send and receive high-quality video files over the Internet. This capability could be a boon to students as well as organizations and individuals using the Net, with hardly any additional expense.